Rhino-sinusitis (or sinusitis) is an inflammation or infection of the lining of the sinus cavities, triggered by a viral, bacterial or fungal infection. It is one of the most common upper respiratory tract infection, affecting an estimated 16% of the US adult population. In Europe, acute sinusitis affects an estimated 2 % and chronic rhino-sinusitis 10 % of the adult population.
Sinusitis can be :
- Acute, which is usually caused by a bacterial infection in the sinuses that results from an upper respiratory tract infection.
- Sub-acute or chronic, which refers to long-term swelling and inflammation of the sinuses that may be caused by bacteria (such as Staphylococcus aureus) or fungus and may involve allergy, environmental factors (pollution…).
|The different sinusitis|
|Acute||Symptoms last for up to 4 weeks|
|Sub-acute||Symptoms last for 4-12 weeks|
|Chronic||Symptoms last for 3 months or longer|
|Main pathogens involved in Rhino-sinusitis|
|Bacteria||Streptococcus pneumoniae (30-35%), Haemophilus influenzae (20-25 %), Moraxella catarrhalis (20%), Staphylococcus aureus|
|Viruses||Rhinovirus, Influenza A et B, Parainfluenza, Coronavirus (which are the primary pathogens), Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Adenovirus and Enterovirus|
|Fungi||Aspergillus, Alternaria, Bipolaris and Curvularia species|
The most common pathogens responsible for Rhino-sinusitis