Lallemand Pharma

Respiratory Health manual

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs associated with different factors such as fever, chest symptoms and consolidation or interstitial lung infiltrates. This disease can be caused by different types of microorganisms and can range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening. Currently, over 3 million people develop pneumonia each year and it is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. In Europe, the annual cost is estimated to 10.1 billion euros and the incidence of the disease is 10.8/1000 people/year in Finland, 4.7/1000 in Great-Britain and 2.6/1000 in Spain.

There are different categories of pneumonia :

  • Bacteria are the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia, with Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in 50 % of cases,
  • Viral pneumonia,
  • Fungal pneumonia
Gram staining of Streptococcus pneumoniae R1014 : gram-positive alpha-hemolytic aerotolerant anaerobic bacteria
Main pathogens involved in Pneumonia
BacteriaStreptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Legionella pneumophila.
VirusesRhinovirus, Coronavirus, Influenza virus, Respiratory Syncytial virus, Adenovirus, Pneumonia, Parainfluenza and Herpes Simplex virus.
FungiHistoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jiroveci and Coccidioides immitis.

The most common pathogens responsible for Pneumonia

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the main air passages to the lungs and is defined as a lower respiratory tract infection.

Two types of Bronchitis exist, acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis has a prevalence of 3.5 % in the French general population aged ›= 45 and is an indicator of an increased risk of devoloping chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is developed in COPD part.

Acute bronchitis is characterized by the development of a cough and mucus most oftenly caused by viral infection of the epithelium of the bronchi. It results in an inflammation and increased secretion of mucus.

Almost 5 % of the general population develops acute bronchitis annualy in the US, with the highest incidence during the fall and winter months. Acute bronchitis generally follows a viral respiratory infection (90 %) and sometimes, a bacterial infection (10%).

The different Bronchitis
AcuteLasts under 21 days
ChronicWhen at least 3 months per year in two consecutive years
Representation of respiratory system
Main pathogens involved in Bronchitis
VirusesCoronavirus, Rhinovirus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Adenovirus, Influenza Virus, Para-influenza Virus
BacteriaChlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis.

The most common pathogens responsible for acute Bronchitis