The immunity of respiratory tract is ensured by the mucosal surfaces: nasal; oral; sublingual; and bronchial. Within these mucosas, numerous cells of innate and specific immunity play an important role of immuno-surveillance, protecting our respiratory tract from invading pathogens that can trigger infections.
The innate immune cells constitute the first line of defenses and involve macrophages, Langerhans cells and dendritic cells ensuring the surveillance along the mucosa. In case of invasion from pathogens, these sentinels will capture and present the pathogens to lymphocytes, triggering the activation of all the immune cascade and specific immunity.
The specific immunity role is to destroy specifically invading pathogens and the toxic molecules they produce, it is ensured by two types of lymphocytes: B cells and T cells.